Outline for Projects

The research project in this course is intended to encourage students to use their education in GIS to gain insight to a field of study that interests each individual. I this regard topics can be broadly based bust must incorporate most of the themes of study presented in this course, especially in the lab and tutorial sections.

It has been indicated that students should follow an outline gained from a recognized journal. This should be followed in a semi-strict form.

For instance any science journal follow these headings: Abstract,Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion and References.

An example of a social science approach can be gained from journal that you, the student, are familiar with. For instance the article; Hedonic Estimates of Lodging Rates in the Four Corners Region by Patrick J. White published in the Professional Geographer uses the layout: a description of the research preceding the paper (serves as a abstract), Introduction, Relevant Literature,The Data Set, The Analysis,Summary and Conclusions.

Any formalized format is acceptable but the paper should speak to the issues discussed in the following layout. This layout is based on the Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion and References design, but the features from each heading can be manipulated into any form.


Brief description of the research that was done. It will give an indication to what problem was to be solved, what methods were used and an indication of results. This section should not explain why the problem was chosen, specific details of the methods or any conclusions from results. It is intended to present key words for future researchers to make use of in selecting which articles they may read.


This section needs to address a description of the problem to be solved, how it has come to be a problem and why it should be solved. It could mention who will benefit from investigating a model to solve the problem. This section should indicate what significant research has been done in the past in this regard (lit search) and what GIS theories were applied.

It would also be interesting as to why you decided on this topic and why it is important to you. This is not part of a formal journal format but it may help you in performing the research.


How did you do the work.


Data setup and acquisition
Data quality
What algorithms you used, what extensions were beneficial and how were they used
List of commands
Software and Procedures used

This section should make use of the topics discussed and tasks undertaken in the labs and tutorials. There should be plenty of illustrations indicating the direction the direction of your work. These could be flowcharts, screen hots diagrams and so on. The methods section may also include the changes in procedures for repeated iterations of similar test or procedures of comparative tests. The methods section can make illusions to the results section to follow.


This section should contain the best representation of your results. This may be an obvious statement with respect to the section title but it can be difficult to present your results in a fashion that is not too overdrawn or not specific enough. Plenty of smaller illustrations (maps for instance) are often used to illustrate findings or perhaps one very descriptive illustration may work best. Tables and statistics should be presented here as well.


This section should provide a description as to how well the model worked: why the results are the way they are, what else can be done in the future to encourage you line of research, and what measures can included to correct procedural and data problems encountered. Indicate where the model fails or succeeds (more illustrations can be used here). This section is probably the more important between if and the methods sections but both reveal the bulk of the work you carried out.

This section explores your work and can reveal why a model succeeds of fails or if more than one scenario was used then explain why one worked better than the other or if a combination of many is required.


Present results and discussion in concise manner. Indicate if you modelled failed or how it succeed. If more than one approach was used then indicate which was better. The conclusion should answer all questions presented in the introduction. It would be nice if you indicated how you benefited from the project.

Reverences, Bibliography Literature Cited.

Much of this will be in you Literature Review – Due March 3 – but you will still need to reference citations you used in the paper. This should be in a proper format (Accreted Journal).

Categories: GEOG 204