- Adding Legend to the Map
- Adding Scale bar and North Arrow
- Adding more information to the Map
- Export your maps to PDF files
Map features include geographic features and ancillary information. Geographic features: Polygon features, Line features, Points feature. Ancillary elements: Title and explanatory text, Legend, North arrow, scale and so on.
Some concepts on map parameters
physical page: – the actual surface on which the map is displayed graphics page: – the area on the physical page where map graphics are drawn map limits: – the area on the graphics page where coverage features are drawn map extent: – the rectangular limits, in real world coordinates, that define the geographic area to display
Goals of Map Design
Several goals of map design can be identified. These include:
- Visual Contrast
- Unity and Harmony (to be discussed in later lectures – not required for this lab)
- Visual Hierarchy (to be discussed in later lectures – not required for this lab)
- Symbolization of map features
- Label features (Shane Lake, University Way, Tyner Blvd, Greenway, UNBC, Forests for the World)
- Using Symbols (Lookout, Water Tower, Picnic Shelter, and Marker Post)
- Map title, scale bar
- Appropriate Legend
- North Arrow
- Your Name and Date
2. Adding a Legend to the Map
- Login to local machine and start terminal server
- Create a folder lab5 in your local directory for today’s lab
- Start ArcMap by opening the map file lab4.mxd from your lab4 folder
In this lab, you will finish the final map by adding ancillary information to make it readable and meaningful. Before we start design the map layout, we need to first set the page size.
Setting the page properties
- Click Main Menu ->File->Page and Print Setup (you can also set your layout using the last button on the layout view toolbar)
- Select paper size letter ( 8.5 x 11)
- Select Paper Orientation as Landscape or Portrait (you can use use whichever – just keep your scale at 1:25000 or larger)
- Click OK
Ensure you are in Layout View and can see the page. Remember to navigate the page space with the tools in the Layout Toolbar.
- To centre your spatial data, right-click unbc_boundary in the table of contents and choose Zoom to Layer to fit the data into display area.
If you already have a colour map document and a black and white map document, choose your colour map and begin to add the ancillary elements. Make frequent saves to your map document.
Note: you may want to use a short-cut by copy-and-pasting between the colour and black and white maps, but it is not recommended. Repeating the steps helps to remember how to do the tasks, and the layout may scale can be different from one map to another.
Now we can start to design our map. The map covers a rectangular area. We might put the main map area in the left part of the page and put the legend in the right part of the page, above or below the locator map.
Before we insert a legend, we will first change the name of each layer to make them readable and meaningful. Changing the name of a layer can be done by right clicking a layer and choose Properties. Under the General tab, change the name.
- Change each layer name to the following:
How you rename a layer in the Table of Contents is how that layer will be named in the Legend. You can also rename the values in the Table of Contents as well. For example, you might consider renaming Paved to Paved Roads, etc.
- Save the map file as lab5.mxd in your lab5 folder
- Click Main Menu -> Insert-> Legend
First, create a trial legend by clicking Next, accepting all the defaults. The legend will be added to the centre of the map. Move the legend to an empty space on your page. To preview your legend design: Using the Layout toolbar tools:
Draw a Zoom In box around the legend, and click the 1:1 button. Important: When you click 1:1, you are previewing the legend at the print scale (this is the size the legend will appear on the printed page). Use this technique to preview all your map elements and feature symbols.
- Use the Layout toolbar Pan button to examine the legend. Delete this legend and start to insert the legend again. This time, you can make changes to the legend design.
On the first panel of the Legend Wizard, all data layers listed in the table of contents in ArcMap are listed in the Map Item list. By default, all map layers are added into the legend. You can choose which map layers you want showing in the legend and remove the the ones you do not want. The buttons in the between the lists allow you to add or remove a legend item.
You can change the order of the legend items – this controls the order in which the layer names appear on the final legend.
We need to keep the following layers in the Legend Item list:
Highest Spot, Point of Interest, Trails, Type of Roads,Campus Buildings, Parking Lots, Wetlands
Decide on the order you would like the items to appear (all points / lines / areas should be kept together) in the legend.
The next panel allows you to design a legend title. The next panel allows you to create a box that frames the legend (your choice). If you do use the box, change the gap value to create “padding”, otherwise the box touches the legend patches.
Experiment with these.
The next panel allows you to design the patch elements for a line feature or a polygon feature. Select a layer in the list and click the down-drop arrow beside either the line or area patch to change the patch design. Don’t be limited by the patch design default name, select the design that best represents your feature. You may also change the size of the patch.
The next panel gives you control over the default spacing between the legend items. Click within any of the spacing values and you will see its red label appear in the panel graphic.
You can adjust any of your legend’s design properties. Right-click the selected legend and select Properties. Explore the capabilities of each of the tabs to edit your legend.
You can resize the legend box by dragging the small handles located at each corner of the box. If you are not happy with the Legend, you can delete it and recreate one. To delete a legend, first select the legend box by clicking it and click the delete button (x button) or choose Edit->Delete
Displaying Legend in several columns If you want the legend items displayed in several columns:
- Click the legend box to select it.
- Right click on the legend box and choose Properties. Click Items tab.
- In the Legend Items list, hold down the CTRL key and click roads and greenway to highligh them and click the down arrow button at right to move them below the trails as we have many line features here and we want the legend for line features displayed in two columns.
- In the Legend item list, click Trails and click the check box for ‘Place in a new column’. The Trails legend will be placed in the second column.
- In the same way, place roads and buildings in the new column respectively. Now we have the legend displayed in four columns (example below is from last year where students were tortured with more map items and meaner TAs!)
- This legend is way too overpowering however!!
- If you are labeling items on the map – you do no need to add them to the legend (i.e. lakes)
- we removed the creeks as a required layer(too busy for the monochromatic version)
- Parking is in the legend in two places
- The wetlands fill is really an ugly style – there are better ones out there -
Converting your legend to graphics and ungrouping elements
The directions above represent a portion of the options you can apply to making your legend. Many people use the steps above (or even less steps) to create a basic legend, and then convert them to graphics to create a more customizable legend. Once the items in the legend have been converted to graphics however, you disconnect the items from the canvas (layout or data frames). This means that changes made in the map (to layers colour for instance) will not be altered in the legend graphics
Once you create a legend, you can right click the legend and select convert to graphics. Once that is done, you can select the legend, right click and ungroup. All the components of the legend can be progressively selected and ungrouped until you can select the text or colour boxes themselves. You can alter the content of each of the ungrouped objects as well as regroup then in other combinations. Each grouped (or ungrouped) object can be moved anywhere in your layout.
Note: the outside few millimetres of the page are none-printable. Ensure your map elements do not extend into the non-printing space as follows:
- Preview your results: Main Menu -> File -> Print Preview
Use this technique to preview all remaining map elements that you are going to add.
3. Adding Scale bar and North Arrow to the Layout
Scale bar Since the scale bar is tied to the spatial data of the map, the software must know the map’s units. Ensure that the map units are set as follows:
- Right click UNBC data frame and choose Properties.
- Click General tab and set the Map Units to meters and Display Units to metres. Click OK to apply the changes.
You will be adding a scale bar for the main map and a scale bar for the locator map. Select UNBC as the active data frame.
- To add its scale bar, click Main Menu->Insert->Scale Bar.
The Scale Bar Selector window pops up and allows you to select a scale bar from the list. ESRI symbol sets provide many different styles of scale bar. You can choose one from the left list by clicking it. Click OK.
- Scroll down the list and choose an appropriate scale bar. Click OK. The scale bar will be displayed in the Layout. Move the scale bar to an appropriate location. Using the Layout Zoom In tool, zoom in on the scale bar.
The system will add a scale bar with default settings. You may see a scale bar that looks like the top one above. The scale bar should have round unit numbers. The second example is also not ideal, as these units might be kms (not meters) which would be appropriate for this map. Other larger scale maps could use a scale bar in metres. Better scale bars can be produced following the steps below (look at the images below the steps to see the general settings for good scale bars and the results)
- Click the scale bar to select it (make sure a box and handles are showing around the scale bar)
- Right-click the scale bar and select Properties.
- On the Scale and Units tab, change the setting for When Resizing to Adjust Width
- Set the Division units to be Kilometers and the division value to be 1Km
- Change Division Value to 2 and the subdivision to 2
- Ensure the Division Units is set to Kilometers
- Choose the Label Position to be a place you feel works the best (the examples have the label below the scale bar).
- If you are proudly Canadian, you should re-type the label to the Canadian Spelling in the Label field (Kilometres, NOT kilometers), or shorten the label to km.
- Click OK
See the image of the setup and resulting scalebar(s)
Preview your scale bar by clicking on the Layout tool Zoom to 100%. This is the size of your scale bar on the printed page. Return to the scale bar’s Properties to make any changes. Examine the other tabs in the scale bar’s Properties for more design ideas. Make the Locator Map the active data frame, and insert its scale bar. North Arrow (?) Similarly you can add a North Arrow to your map with the ESRI symbol set – is it required? Should it be a big one?
- To add a North Arrow, click Main Menu ->Insert->North Arrow.
The North Arrow Selector window pops up and allows you to select a scale bar from the list.
- Select a North Arrow and click OK. The North Arrow is displayed in the Layout.
- Now move the North Arrow to the best location.
- Preview you north arrow with the Zoom to 100% tool. Ensure the north arrow is not too large.
- Save the map file.
How would you judge if a single element is too large on the layout page? Zoom to the Zoom Whole Page of the Layout and examine your map. What draws your attention first? If it is the north arrow, then it is too large. Remember you are creating a visual hierarchy that guides the map reader through your map as well as through the spatial features. TOP
The north arrow you have added to your map points to grid north. To change the rotation of the arrow so that it aligned to either magnetic north or True North, examine the north arrow’s Properties, and note the setting for Calibration Angle. How do you determine the rotation angle for a map? True north aligns to the Meridian of Longitude at a location. This rotation changes across the map (remember that longitude converges towards the pole). Magnetic declination changes with location and changes through time as the magnetic pole is constantly on the move.
For magnetic declination you can determine the Longitude and Latitude of the centre of your map (change Data Frame Properties -> General tab -> Display Units to geographic to determine the coordinates at map centre), then visit the federal government website (in your web browser use the following search terms: magnetic declination calculator Canada).
For True North a map maker would calculate the meridian convergence for the centre of the map and employ that angle to rotate the north arrow. A utility located at the website below allows you to perform this calculation based on the mapping plane (UTM), central or reference meridian for the map’s UTM ZONE (zone 10 is 123 degree) and the Longitude, Latitude of your map centre. However, for this map, you will notice that the map centre meridian is very close to the zone’s central meridian. In this case, the difference between grid north and true north is not noticeable. Calculate magnetic declination angle: http://geomag.nrcan.gc.ca/apps/mdcal-eng.php Remember to change the display units back to metres (or meters for American software). TOP
4. Adding more information to the Map
Text Text is another important part of a map. You need to add a map title, your name and date. Use the Drawing toolbar text tools or Main Menu ->Insert -> Title or Main Menu -> Insert -> Text.
- Click the A button and place your cursor to the place you want to place the map tile (may be on the top of the map)
- Type ‘UNBC’. The font size might not be appropriate. Click anywhere to finish typing.
- Double click the text to open the properties window.
- Click Change Symbols button. Change the font size and bold style Click OK and OK again.
- Now you add your name and date to the map and move them to the lower right corner of the map.
Examine your text. You may wish to reduce the spacing between lines. In the text’s Properties this is the Leading value. For example, try reducing the value to -1 or -2 and examine the results.
We can also add a logo to the map (but not too big!). This is not required or even suggested for this assignment, but below are the directions in case you wish to do so.
- Click Main Menu ->Insert->Picture. Navigate to find the logo you wish not put on the map
- Move the logo to the lower right corner of the map. (above your name and date)
- Resize the picture by dragging the small handle at each corner if necessary.
Open your black and white map document and proceed to add its ancillary map elements.
5. Previewing your maps (Colour and Black and White).
Using a printer to see you maps in Adobe Acrobat reader
We have a pdf printer drive installed on osmotar that can be used to create pdf documents from within ArcMap (or any other software for that matter).
Set up the printer and page
Set the Page and Print Setup once again, but choose the printer to be PDFill (PDF and Image writer) – File –> Print and Page Setup –> Choose PDFill –> OK.
Once this is set up, you can print the map to a pdf file for viewing in Acrobat Reader. File –> Print –> Choose a place to save the pdf file –> Acrobat will open with your map.
Setup for printing to black and white
You can go back into the Page and Print Setup and choose the properties of the printer, then use the Paper/Quality tab to set the output as black and white. .File –> Print and Page Setup –>Properties–>Paper/Quality Tab–>Black and White–> OK–>OK.
Print as above to view your map in Acrobat Reader (with a black and white map).
6.Printing or Exporting your maps (Either ArcMap Export – or print directly to the student printers)
Export your maps to PDF and PNG files.
Using PDF files
PDF (Portable Document Files) files can contain both image and vector data, and since we may use both in making a map (we are using vectors so far in the labs – with the layers in the map), and provide scalable and clean looking maps. There are two issues with using PDF files however. They do not necessarily insert into Word documents well, and there is no black and white printing options in ArcMap. You can use a printer driver to help correct these issues, but using an image output may be a better solution
Using PNG (image file output)
PNG (Portable Network Graphic) do not contain vectors and can only work for zooming in if the resolution is set accordingly high. They are easily imported into Word or web pages and you can test your colour map for a Black and White rendering using PNG as the export type in ArcMap.
Exporting your map in ArcGIS
The directions below describe creating PDF output using the export function in ArcMap, but you can select PNG as output as well.
- When done, export your map to a PDF file by clicking File->Export Map. Select PDF for the file type and save the file under your lab5 folder, name it after yourself – first initial and surname e.g. mjones.pdf and mjones-bw.pdf. Repeat the exporting (or copy the pdf output files), but place the files on your H: drive (for printing elsewhere in the school).
- General tab: set the Resolution to 300 dpi.
- Format tab: and click the check box for Embed all Document Fonts. This allows all symbols used in this map to be exported
- Save the color map to username_color.pdf and black and white map to username_bw.pdf
- Quit ArcMap
- Click Start -> Logoff. Click Log Off to logout from terminal server
- Click the first icons on the menu bar located at bottom and choose Logout to logout Linux.
Printing directly to the student printers (not tested)
You can send your map directly to the student printers by selecting the appropriate printer in the Print Page and Setup (either black and white or colour). You may want to preview the print first to ensure the map fits on the printable area of the page. You can also cheat (as you are not providing a scale ratio on the map) and select print to fit page as an option before you send it to the student printer.
This can be done by:
File –> Print Page and Setup –> choose printserver.unbc.ca\ColourPrinting –> OK.
File –> Print –> OK
Repeat for black and white, but choose BWPrinter
File –> Print Page and Setup –> choose printserver.unbc.ca\BWPrinting –> OK.
File –> Print –> OK
Handing in your work:
- Print your colour and black-white map and hand it in to your TA or drop-off box 2O at the second floor of teaching lab building (building 8)
- Assignment 1 is due Monday, February 13th at 4:00PM